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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – Notes and Quotes from Trauma and Recovery by Judith Herman, M.D. –
I. Causes/Development (p.34)
Normal physical and mental responses to danger include sudden arousal, sharply focused attention to the immediate situation, changes in perception and emotions. Such responses mobilize the threatened person for action (fight or flight). When these normal responses prove useless and escape or resistance is not possible, the self-defense system becomes overwhelmed and disorganized. Responses persist in altered forms, often exaggerated, and become disconnected from the original trauma and from each other. This fragmentationof the normal system of self-protection produces Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome.
II. Effects of Any Trauma (p. 51-56)
a) basic human relationships broken or damaged
b) self-identity and self-esteem shattered
c) trust and safety lost
d) belief system destroyed
III. Disempowerment and Disconnection (p.74-95)
b) inconsistent, unpredictable violence
c) capricious enforcement of petty rules
d) loss of autonomy, including scrutiny/control of body and bodily functions
e) intermittent rewards or solace (breaking resistance, reinforcing ependence)
f) isolation from significant persons and objects
g) demands for surrender
a) suppression of thought, past and future
b) narrow focus on present
c) limited initiative
d) constant expectation of harm
f) intense rage
From "Take Back your Life":
a cult is a group or movement exhibiting great or excessive devotion to some person, idea, or thing, and employing unethical manipulattive or coersive techniques of persuasion and control (e.g. isolation from former friends and family, debilitation,use of special methods to heighten suggestibility and subservience, powerful group pressures, information management, suspension of individuality or critical judgement), designed to advance the goal of the group's leaders, to the actual or possible detriment of members, their family, or the community.
Four interlocking dimensions to the framework of a cult's social system and dynamics are:
-Transcendant belief system
-systems of control
-systems of influence
A Word about disassociation:
...recognition exists that unbearable emotional reactions to truamatic events can produce an altered or dissociative state. Dissociation is an "abnormal state, set apart from ordinary consciousness" wherein the normal connections of memory, knowledge and emotion are severed.
Dissociation then, is a kind of fragmenting of the self, sometimes referred to as "splitting."
A person in a dissociated state is not functioning at full capacity and is highly suggestible and compliant, thereby furthering the cult's influence and control.
Post traumatic stress disorder is a term that was developed to describe the condition of some soldiers returning from fighting the conflict in VietNam.
Since then the condition has been further studied and elaborated upon. Bessel van der Kolk is a researcher who provides excellent insight into trauma in its many forms.
The description of III how acheived, and the resulting issues just seemed to me to be accurately descriptive of what Judy's Ramtha does and how many end up
Yes, III is a good description of what I used to experience during Judy/"Ramtha's" TRUTH TEACHINGS. Those went on for years to the accompaniment of much alcohol. "Ramtha" would spontaneously pick someone out of the audience and tell them to "STAND UP!" Then "Ramtha" would launch into a verbal beating revealing all sorts of secrets about the "student." The whole time my heart would be pounding as I worried, "What if he calls on me?" That level of continuously experienced fear creates PTSD.
Funny thing is now I realize that many of the things "Ramtha" accused students of may not have been true.
In 2006, when during a Live Stream event, "Ramtha" was punching a man/husband/student in the chest/stomach area, upon accusing him of lusting after some females in the school (JZ and Selma), the man DENIED it repeatedly. He said he had never cheated on his wife, either.
Yes, in retrospect, I also wonder how much of it all was even true ! It's easy to see how a student, "under the influence" (of any form of mind control or undue influence), would not want to buck the teacher. Especially when so many do fear "him", too.
When I was singled out and lambasted, I do know that a good part of what was being yelled at me, simply does not fit.
Maybe "Ramtha" needs glasses.
i never saw jz.geting people up which she dident know.or were there was not a political reason for.when she waved her finger in accusition and looked at me she was allways dead wrong.and then what was it about: sexual fantasies and mastrubation.where can she be wrong there.somebody who loves the truth shouldent be cought up in lies and deceit.she only could spread fear because nobody stands up and calls her on here lies.grace you should write a puplic letter to here like you wrote on this forum.[they were so brilliant there was nothing to add to thanks]and let us know here answer or if she cowardly pulls out.she is not so brilliant like she tries to make people beleave with here hypnotic bla bla .david you should take the offer to complain at the school only in writing.she is much to scared to give a interview which she cant control.show the world how she cowardly hides behind here walls.by good she not even can show her own face she has to make a facelift and put manipulated pictures in her advertisements.or can money realy buy a face like in the ads?i dident see her for a long time.knowing about the feartactics and that she can harm you only if you beleave she can breaks her spell.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the term used to describe a severe and on-going emotional reaction that results from exposure to extreme stress and/ortrauma. Clinically, such events involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury, or a threat to physical and/or psychological integrity, to a degree that usual psychological defenses are incapable of coping with the impact. It is occasionally called post-traumatic stress reaction to emphasize that it is a result of traumatic experience rather than a manifestation of a pre-existing psychological condition. The presence of a PTSD response is influenced by the intensity of the experience, its duration, and the individual person involved.
It is possible for individuals to experience traumatic stress without manifesting Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, as indicated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and also for people to experience traumatic situations and not develop PTSD. In fact, most people who experience traumatic events will not develop PTSD. For most people, the emotional effects of traumatic events tend to subside after several months. PTSD is thought to be primarily an anxiety disorder (possibly closely related to panic disorder) and should not be confused with normal grief and adjustment after traumatic events.
PTSD may be triggered by an external factor or factors. Its symptoms can include the following: nightmares, flashbacks, emotional detachment or numbing of feelings (emotional self-mortification or dissociation), insomnia, avoidance of reminders and extreme distress when exposed to the reminders ("triggers"), loss of appetite, irritability, hypervigilance, memory loss (may appear as difficulty paying attention), excessive startle response, clinical depression, and anxiety. It is also possible for a person suffering from PTSD to exhibit one or more other comorbid psychiatric disorders; these disorders often include clinical depression (or bipolar disorder), general anxiety disorder, and a variety of addictions.
Symptoms that appear within the first month of the trauma are called Acute stress disorder, not PTSD according to DSM-IV. If there is no improvement of symptoms after this period of time, PTSD is diagnosed. PTSD has three subforms: Acute PTSD subsides after a duration of three months. If the symptoms persist, the diagnosis is changed to chronic PTSD. The third subform is referred to as delayed onset PTSD which may occur months, years, or even decades after the event.
1 Historical background
2 Clinical aspects of PTSD
2.1 Experiences which may induce the condition
2.1.1 Cancer as PTSD-trauma
2.2 Diagnostic criteria
2.3 Symptoms and their possible explanations
3 Biology of PTSD
3.1.1 Studies found no clear connection to cortisol level
4 PTSD and society
4.2 Veterans and PTSD politics
4.3 Canadian Veterans
4.5 Trauma and the Arts
5 Related lists
6 See also
7 Further reading
9 External links
 Historical background
The first documented case of psychological distress was reported in 1900 BC, Egypt by an Egyptian physician who described a "hysterical" reaction to trauma (Veith 1965).
Railway spine was a nineteenth-century diagnosis for the post-traumatic symptoms of passengers involved in railroad accidents. The first full length medical study of the condition was John Eric Erichsen's On Railway and Other Injuries of the Nervous System, published in 1864. For this reason, railway spine is often known as "Erichsen's disease". Many physicians thought that the symptoms were due to the "excessive speeds" (about 30 mph) of the trains, and that the human body could not cope with speeds that fast. It was later found to be purely psychological in origin, and no longer exists as a valid disorder.
There have been numerous reports of military veterans suffering from PTSD-like symptoms for well over 100 years. For example, veterans of the US Civil War who suffered emotional problems were diagnosed as being afflicted with "soldier's heart" or “Da Costa’s Syndrome” which shares many symptoms like PTSD. Shell shock was a term used to describe the condition of veterans of World War I who seemed emotionally disturbed in a similar fashion. In World War II, these symptoms were classified as "battle fatigue" or "combat fatigue". Other terms used to describe military-related mood disturbances include "nostalgia", "not yet diagnosed nervous", "irritable heart", "effort syndrome", "war neurosis", and "operational exhaustion".
Hysteria was also related to "traumatic reminiscences" a century ago (Janet 1901). At that time, Sigmund Freud's pupil, Kardiner, was the first to describe what later became known as symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (Lamprecht & Sack 2002).
Stress is often defined as the reaction to a situation that threatens the balance or homeostasis of a system (Antonovsky 1981). The situation causing the stress reaction is defined as the "stressor", but the stress reaction and not the stressor is what jeopardizes the homeostasis (Aardal-Eriksson 2002). Post-traumatic stress can thus be seen as a chemical imbalance of neurotransmitters, according to stress theory.
However, PTSD in and of itself is a relatively recent diagnosis in psychiatric nosology, first appearing in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in 1980. It has been said that development of the PTSD concept has, in part, socio-economic and political implications (Mezey & Robbins 2001). War veterans are the most publicly-recognized victims of PTSD; long-term psychiatric illness was formally observed in World War I veterans. The syndrome entered wide public consciousness after the Vietnam War. PTSD patients had difficulties receiving veterans' disability benefits because there was no psychiatric diagnosis available by which veterans could claim indemnity. This situation has changed during the last two decades and PTSD is now one of several psychiatric diagnoses for which a veteran can receive compensation, such as a war veteran indemnity pension, in the U.S. (see below: Mezey & Robbins 2001)
PTSD has also been recognized as a problem for marginalized groups within societies. One such group is Australian Aboriginal peoples, and other Indigenous peoples around the world. In these cases the repeated history of childhood and adult trauma, removal of children from their families, interpersonal violence and substance abuse, and early death, results in generations of people with high levels of PTSD.
 Clinical aspects of PTSD
 Experiences which may induce the condition
Main article: Psychological trauma
childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, including prolonged or extreme neglect; also, witnessing such abuse inflicted on another child or an adult
experiencing (including witnessing) an event perceived as life-threatening, such as:
a serious accident,
violent physical assaults or surviving or witnessing such an event, including torture
adult experiences of sexual assault or rape
warfare, Policing and other occupations exposed to violence or disaster
violent, life threatening, natural disasters
 Cancer as PTSD-trauma
PTSD is normally associated with trauma such as violent crimes, rape, and war experience. However, there have been a growing number of reports of PTSD among cancer survivors and their relatives (Smith 1999, Kangas 2002). Most studies deal with survivors of breast cancer (Green 1998, Cordova 2000, Amir & Ramati 2002), and cancer in children and their parents (Landolt 1998, Stuber 199 , and show prevalence figures of between five and 20%. Characteristic intrusive and avoidance symptoms have been described in cancer patients with traumatic memories of injury, treatment, and death (Brewin 199 . There is yet disagreement on whether the traumas associated with different stressful events relating to cancer diagnosis and treatment actually qualify as PTSD stressors (Green 199 . Cancer as trauma is multifaceted, includes multiple events that can cause distress, and like combat, is often characterized by extended duration with a potential for recurrence and a varying immediacy of life-threat (Smith 1999).
 Diagnostic criteria
The diagnostic criteria for PTSD, according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV), are stressors listed from A to F. The current diagnostic criteria for the PTSD published in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders may be found DSM-IV-TR here.
Notably, the stressor criterion A is divided into two parts. The first (A1) requires that "the person experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others." The second (A2) requires that "the person’s response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror." The DSM-IV A criterion differs substantially from the previous DSM-III-R stressor criterion, which specified the traumatic event should be of a type that would cause "significant symptoms of distress in almost anyone," and that the event was "outside the range of usual human experience." Since the introduction of DSM-IV, the number of possible PTSD-traumas has increased and one study suggests that the increase is around 50% (Breslau & Kessler 2001).
 Symptoms and their possible explanations
Symptoms can include general restlessness, insomnia, aggressiveness, depression, dissociation, emotional detachment, and nightmares. A potential symptom is memory loss about an aspect of the traumatic event. Amplification of other underlying psychological conditions may also occur. Young children suffering from PTSD will often re-enact aspects of the trauma through their play and may often have nightmares that lack any recognizable content.
One patho-psychological way of explaining PTSD is by viewing the condition as secondary to deficient emotional or cognitive processing of a trauma. This view also helps to explain the three symptom clusters of the disorder:
Intrusion: Since the sufferers are unable to process the extreme emotions brought about by the trauma, they are plagued by recurrent nightmares or daytime flashbacks, during which they graphically re-experience the trauma. These re-experiences are characterized by high anxiety levels and make up one part of the PTSD symptom cluster triad called intrusive symptoms.
Hyperarousal: PTSD is also characterized by a state of nervousness with the patient being prepared for "fight or flight". The typical hyperactive startle reaction, characterized by "jumpiness" in connection with high sounds or fast motions, is typical for another part of the PTSD cluster called hyperarousal symptoms and could also be secondary to an incomplete processing.
Avoidance: The hyperarousal and the intrusive symptoms are eventually so distressing that the individual strives to avoid contact with everything and everyone, even their own thoughts, which may arouse memories of the trauma and thus provoke the intrusive and hyperarousal states. The sufferers isolate themselves, becoming detached in their feelings with a restricted range of emotional response and can experience so-called emotional detachment ("numbing"). This avoidance behavior is the third part of the symptom triad that makes up the PTSD criteria.
Dissociation: Dissociation is another "defense" that includes a variety of symptoms including feelings of depersonalization and derealization, disconnection between memory and affect so that the person is "in another world," and in extreme forms can involve apparent multiple personalities and acting without any memory ("losing time").
Early intervention after a traumatic incident, known as Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) is often used to reduce traumatic effects of an incident, and potentially prevent a full-blown occurrence of PTSD. However recent studies regarding CISM seem to indicate iatrogenic effects (Carlier, Lamberts, van Uchelen & Gersons 199 (Mayou, Ehlers & Hobbs 2000).
There have been scores of treatments suggested for the treatment of PTSD. The most researched (non-medical) psychotherapeutic method, specifically targeted at the disorder PTSD, is Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).
Relationship based treatments are also often used. Johnson, S., (2002). Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy with Trauma Survivors. NY: Guilford, is one example. These, and other approaches, use attachment theory and an attachment model of treatment. The treatment of complex trauma often requires a multi-modal approach.
PTSD is commonly treated using a combination of psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, group therapy, and exposure therapy are popular) and psychotropic drug therapy (antidepressant or atypical antipsychotics, e.g. brand names such as Prozac (fluoxetine), Effexor (venlafaxine), Zoloft (sertraline), Remeron (mirtazapine), Zyprexa (olanzapine), or Seroquel (quetiapine)). Recently Lamotrigine has been reported to be useful in treating some people with PTSD.
According to some studies, the most effective psychotherapeutic treatment for PTSD is Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) q.v. Talk therapy may prove useful, but only insofar as the individual sufferer is enabled to come to terms with the trauma suffered and successfully integrate the experiences in a way that does not further damage the psyche. Forbes, et al, (2001) have shown that a technique of "rewriting" the content of nightmares through imagery rehearsal so that they have a resolution can not only reduce the nightmares but also other symptoms. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved a clinical protocol that combines the drug MDMA with talk therapy sessions.
Basic counseling for PTSD includes education about the condition and provision of safety and support (Foa 1997). Cognitive therapy shows good results (Resick 2002), and group therapy may be helpful in reducing isolation and Stigma (Foy 2002).
Dr. Jan Bastiaans of the Netherlands has developed a form of psychedelic psychotherapy involving LSD, with which he has successfully treated concentration camp survivors who suffer from PTSD.
PTSD is often co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders such as depression and substance abuse. Currently under scrutiny is the inclusion of Complex Post Traumatic Stress in the 2006 revision of the DSM-IV-TR. This is a variant of PTSD that includes the breakthrough of Borderline Personality traits.
James McGaugh is a pioneer in the neurobiology of learning and memory. He directs the Center for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory at the University of California at Irvine.
For several decades, he has performed numerous animal and human experiments to understand the processes involved in memory consolidation. He believes strongly in the work being done to help people suffering from PTSD.
An event becomes a strong memory, a traumatic memory, when emotions are high, he explains. Those emotions trigger a release of stress hormones like adrenaline, which act on a region of the brain called the amygdala -- and the memory is stored or "consolidated," explains McGaugh.
Current studies have focused on propranolol, a beta blocker commonly prescribed for heart disease because it helps the heart relax, relieves high blood pressure, and prevents heart attacks. "Hundreds of thousands, millions of people take this drug now for heart disease," he tells WebMD. "We're not talking about some exotic substance."
Studies have shown that "if we give a drug that blocks the action of one stress hormone, adrenaline, the memory of trauma is blunted," he says.
The drug cannot make someone forget an event, McGaugh says. "The drug does not remove the memory -- it just makes the memory more normal. It prevents the excessively strong memory from developing, the memory that keeps you awake at night. The drug does something that our hormonal system does all the time -- regulating memory through the actions of hormones. We're removing the excess hormones."
Recently, the use of Virtual reality and Integrated reality experiences applied as a new type of exposure therapy methods to come types of PTSD (specifically military related patients) has been gaining recognition. Some of this work is done at the CAREN VR LAB at the SHEBA rehabilitation hospital in Israel. The ideas behind this methods is based on introducing PTSD causes in a gradual manner, inside a safe environment, the hope is that training in VR in this manner will reduce stress and transfer to daily reality. A similar system is recently installed at the BAMC (Brooke Army Medical Center ) In the USA.
 Biology of PTSD
PTSD displays biochemical changes in the brain and body, which are different from other psychiatric disorders such as major depression.
In PTSD patients, the dexamethasone cortisol suppression is strong, while it is weak in patients with major depression. In most PTSD patients the urine secretion of cortisol is low, at the same time as the catecholamine secretion is high, and the norepinephrine/cortisol ratio is increased. Brain catecholamine levels are low, and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) concentrations are high. There is also an increased sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with a strong negative feedback of cortisol, due to a generally increased sensitivity of cortisol receptors (Yehuda, 2001).
 Studies found no clear connection to cortisol level
The association of PTSD with cortisol levels is controversial within the medical community.
Some researchers have associated the response to stress in PTSD with long-term high levels of norepinephrine, at the same time as cortisol levels are low, a pattern associated with facilitated learning in animals. Translating this reaction to human conditions gives a pathophysiological explanation for PTSD by a maladaptive learning pathway to fear response (Yehuda 2002). With this deduction follows that the clinical picture of hyperreactivity and hyperresponsiveness in PTSD is consistent with the sensitive HPA-axis.
Low cortisol levels are also discussed as a possible pre-existing condition that neurochemically predisposes a person to PTSD. Swedish United Nation soldiers serving in Bosnia with low pre-service salivary cortisol levels had a higher risk of reacting with PTSD symptoms, following war trauma, than soldiers with normal pre-service levels (Aardal-Eriksson 2001).
There is considerable controversy within the medical community regarding the neurobiology of PTSD. A review of existing studies on this subject showed no clear relation between cortisol levels and PTSD. For example, only a slight majority of studies have found a decrease in cortisol levels; many others have found no effect or even an increase.
In animal research as well as human studies, the amygdala has been shown to be strongly involved in the formation of emotional memories, especially fear-related memories. Neuroimaging studies in humans have revealed both morphological and functional aspects of PTSD. The amygdalocentric model of PTSD proposes that it is associated with hyperarousal of the amygdala and insufficient top-down control by the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. Further animal and clinical research into the amygdala and fear conditioning may suggest additional treatments for the condition.
 PTSD and society
PTSD may be experienced following any traumatic experience, or series of experiences which satisfy the criteria and that do not allow the victim to readily recuperate from the detrimental effects of stress. It is believed that of those exposed to traumatic conditions between 5% and 80% will develop PTSD depending on the severity of the trauma and personal vulnerability.
The National Comorbidity Survey Report provided the following information about PTSD in the general adult population: The estimated lifetime prevalence of PTSD among adult Americans is 7.8%, with women (10.4%) twice as likely as men (5%) to have PTSD at some point in their lives.
In recent history, the Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster, which took place December 26, 2004 and took hundreds of thousands of lives, the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon, and the impact and effects of Hurricane Katrina may have caused PTSD in many survivors and rescue workers. Today relief workers from organizations such as The Red Cross and the Salvation Army provide counseling after major disasters as part of their standard procedures to curb severe cases of post-traumatic stress disorder.
Other agencies, such as the National Meditation Center for World Peace , have created similar special programs. The NMC trains agencies such as crisis centers NGOs and works with international agencies to prevent trauma to children.
That's good information that you posted. Would you please post the website that it came from ? I would assume it's from Wikipedia, but I'm not sure.
I suspect that participation in Ramtha’s audience is not so much the cause of our current “symptoms”/diagnoses/”issues” such as ptsd or bipolar or whatever – rather it was another chapter in a life story/pattern of abuse/not recognizing our inherent self worth and inherent lovedness. Beyond even Christness, what Ramtha offered us was being loved/lovedness. And then, seemingly out of nowhere, the right hook in our gut – the sudden unexpected attack/put down. I suspect that for many of us, Ramtha was not the first “entity” in our lives to do that to us. The “abuse” may have been overt or subtle; or not even definable as abuse. There seems a universal human hunger to feel loved. Some fortunate people actually experienced that in their birth or adopted families. Many of us didn’t. Ramtha lures us into the web with all the words of love and acceptance that we’ve yearned to hear. And then the abuse starts. When we’ve had enough, we leave. If the experience helps us to identify a life pattern, all the better. If not, we’re bound to be unconsciously drawn into another similar situation. So I don’t think JZ causes or is to blame for my post traumatic stress syndrome and other challenges, I do think the experience exacerbated my issues - like boils coming to a head – so that (per Mary Daly) by naming/recognizing the symptoms/condition/issue/pattern I can now address it and move beyond, one small step at a time.
I agree. I have given this much thought. after Graced posted about the role and methodology of abuse at the school, it had dawned on me, that esp , having dealt with the "inner circle", that those closest had far greater abuse situations prior to going to RSE.
I, myself, witnessed my brother being horribly abused by my mother, hence being drawn to the pattern.
I agree with what you said that I believe RSE exacerbates the conditions of which one may be prone to.
I mean, look at the life that JZ led as stated in State of Mind.
Raped at a young age,abusive father, abusive husband...the list goes on.
I highly doubt she has entertained counselling as a viable option, esp when she has trademarked healing processes
wit the US patent office
not to mention, that when I visited my physician (who also attends the school) for situational stress (single mom with 17 yr old and a very stressful work situation made nearly unbearable by "Blue Body" who has the work ethic of a sloth), she said to me (and this is a quote),
"it is a very dysfunctional place to work."
That hit the nail on the head, as I had worked for several Fortune 500 companies that actually have written protocols in place BEFORE you work there. Not unwritten,unspoken rules, nor none made up as you go.
Tree said, "Not unwritten,unspoken rules, nor none made up as you go."
Sounds like a DICTATORSHIP. You know what ? I have little sympathy for those "inner circle" puppets. That's ALL that they are; puppets.
Anyone with a healthy level of self-esteem, and personal integrity, would not tolerate the things that go on at the school, nevermind as an employee, under the conditions that you stated.
I once sat next to a staff person, a man, who engaged another male staff person in a conversation. They were bickering with one another and it was ALL over FEAR because they knew JZ had learned about the fact that something wasn't done the way she wanted it to be done. I sat there and quietly overheard that entire conversation. I filed it away under "red flags" to make note of. Later, I smartened up, and took action, too.
They lost my presence. I gained it.
i never got abused.what i did i trusted the word of jz.i trusted the words of a hyrophant.what made me wake up is that school realaty differs too much from whats stated.so since every cigeretpagage and medication has the obligation to warn the customer here is the idea for a thread:this product...
I was never abused.
My brother and sister were.
I was a wtiness to that.
re-visit ( as painful it may be)
and exactly WHY????
would this be on the recommended
reading list? a few years ago?